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China: A History

China: A History

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Xinran pays tribute to these incredible men and women who lived through war, revolution, famine and urbanisation. They watched China transform from an agricultural state to a modern country with over 1.3 billion people. You’ll meet ordinary, yet fascinating people; taxi drivers, teachers, shoe menders, a herbalist, lantern makers, an acrobat, Red Guards, a naval general and many more, all ranging in age from their seventies to nineties. While they were once forced to be the silent generation, their precious stories will now live on in this remarkable work of oral history. Ao, Hong; Dekkers, Mark J.; Wei, Qi; Qiang, Xiaoke; Xiao, Guoqiao (15 August 2013). "New evidence for early presence of hominids in North China". Scientific Reports. 3 (2403): 2403. Bibcode: 2013NatSR...3E2403A. doi: 10.1038/srep02403. PMC 3744199. PMID 23948715. The history of China spans several millennia across a wide geographical area. Each region now considered part of the Chinese world has experienced periods of unity, fracture, prosperity, and strife. Chinese civilization first emerged in the Yellow River valley, which along with the Yangtze basin constitutes the geographic core of the Chinese cultural sphere. China maintains a rich diversity of ethnic and linguistic people groups. The traditional lens for viewing Chinese history is the dynastic cycle: imperial dynasties rise and fall, and are ascribed certain achievements. Throughout pervades the narrative that Chinese civilization can be traced as an unbroken thread many thousands of years into the past, making it one of the cradles of civilization. At various times, states representative of a dominant Chinese culture have directly controlled areas stretching as far west as the Tian Shan, the Tarim Basin, and the Himalayas, as far north as the Sayan Mountains, and as far south as the delta of the Red River.

Ho, Ping-ti (1970). "An Estimate of the Total Population of Sung-Chin China". Études Song. 1 (1): 33–53. Gabriel Ferrand, ed. (1922). Voyage du marchand arabe Sulaymân en Inde et en Chine, rédigé en 851, suivi de remarques par Abû Zayd Hasan (vers 916). Paris Éditions Bossard. p. 76.

Kate O'Keeffe; Katy Stech Ferek (14 November 2019). "Stop Calling China's Xi Jinping 'President', U.S. Panel Says". The Wall Street Journal. The Song dynasty was also a period of major innovation in the history of warfare. Gunpowder, while invented in the Tang dynasty, was first put into use in battlefields by the Song army, inspiring a succession of new firearms and siege engines designs. During the Southern Song dynasty, as its survival hinged decisively on guarding the Yangtze and Huai River against the cavalry forces from the north, the first standing navy in China was assembled in 1132, with its admiral's headquarters established at Dinghai. Paddle-wheel warships equipped with trebuchets could launch incendiary bombs made of gunpowder and lime, as recorded in Song's victory over the invading Jin forces at the Battle of Tangdao in the East China Sea, and the Battle of Caishi on the Yangtze River in 1161. Bagley, Robert (1999). "Shang Archaeology". In Loewe, Michael; Shaughnessy, Edward L. (eds.). The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 BC. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-47030-8. The Ming dynasty was founded by Zhu Yuanzhang in 1368, who proclaimed himself as the Hongwu Emperor. The capital was initially set at Nanjing, and was later moved to Beijing from Yongle Emperor's reign onward.

As one of the oldest preserved books in China and a timeless classic, The Art of War has influenced countless politicians, executives, military figures and anyone looking to master the art of conflict and become a better leader. Written by the warrior-philosopher Sun Tzu over 2,000 years ago, the author famously states that conflict is an inevitable part of life, but “to win without fighting is best.” This masterful book also delves into China’s history and it’s a must-read for anyone looking to learn more about the politics and psychology of conflict in China and the world. The Editorial Committee of Chinese Civilization: A Source Book, City University of Hong Kong (2007). China: Five Thousand Years of History and Civilization. City University of HK Press. p.25. ISBN 978-9629371401. Hart-Landsberg, Martin; Burkett, Paul (2010). China and Socialism: Market Reforms and Class Struggle. Monthly Review Press. ISBN 978-1-58367-123-8 . Retrieved 30 October 2008.Liu, Wu; Martinón-Torres, María; Cai, Yan-jun; Xing, Song; Tong, Hao-wen; Pei, Shu-wen; Sier, Mark Jan; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Li, Yi-Yuan; Yang, Xiong-xin; De Castro, José María Bermúdez; Wu, Xiu-jie (2015). "The earliest unequivocally modern humans in southern China" (PDF). Nature. 526 (7575): 696–699. Bibcode: 2015Natur.526..696L. doi: 10.1038/nature15696. PMID 26466566. S2CID 205246146. Fairbank, J.K.; Goldman, M. (2006). China: A New History (2nded.). Harvard University Press. p.320. ISBN 978-0674018280. The women who make this choice often start out in the factories. The freedoms they experience in this life is usually their first taste of liberation from the traditional lifestyles of their homes.

She writes about poetry and the script as well. It’s a nice introduction to China, maybe, if you don’t know much about it. Admin (10 November 2015). "Ancient Chinese thoughts on abdication, hereditary succession relevant today". Asia Times . Retrieved 9 August 2022.Further information: History of the Han dynasty Western Han Map showing the expansion of Han dynasty in the 2nd century BC According to the U.S. Department of Defense, as many as 3 million Uyghurs and members of other Muslim minority groups are being held in China's internment camps which are located in the Xinjiang region and which American news reports often label as "concentration camps". [101] The camps were established in late 2010s under Xi Jinping's administration. [102] [103] Human Rights Watch says that they have been used to indoctrinate Uyghurs and other Muslims since 2017 as part of a " people's war on terror", a policy announced in 2014. [104] [105] [102] The camps have been criticized by the governments of many countries and human rights organizations for alleged human rights abuses, including mistreatment, rape, and torture, with some of them alleging genocide. [106] The dynasty had a strong and complex central government that unified and controlled the empire. The emperor's role became more autocratic, although Hongwu Emperor necessarily continued to use what he called the " Grand Secretariat" to assist with the immense paperwork of the bureaucracy, including memorials (petitions and recommendations to the throne), imperial edicts in reply, reports of various kinds, and tax records. It was this same bureaucracy that later prevented the Ming government from being able to adapt to changes in society, and eventually led to its decline.

Nationalism, patriotism, progress, science, democracy, and freedom were the goals; imperialism, feudalism, warlordism, autocracy, patriarchy, and blind adherence to tradition were the enemies. Intellectuals struggled with how to be strong and modern and yet Chinese, how to preserve China as a political entity in the world of competing nations." [80] The flag of the Republic of China from 1912 to 1928. The flag of the Republic of China from 1928 to now. Martini, I. Peter (2010). Landscapes and Societies: Selected Cases. Springer. p. 310. ISBN 978-90-481-9412-4. A stupa on top of an arch ( crossing street tower), is a common form of architecture during Yuan period.It’s one of those books that if you grow up in China, you know the story, even if you haven’t read the book. It’s a bit like Alice in Wonderland or the story of Romeo and Juliet if you’re growing up in England or America. Even if you’ve never seen Romeo and Juliet, you still know the characters, somebody can refer to Romeo and it means something.

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