Ethics (Penguin Classics)

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Ethics (Penguin Classics)

Ethics (Penguin Classics)

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Spinoza's philosophy is explicated in his two major publications originally written in Latin, the Tratacus Theologico-Politicus (TTP) (1670) and the Ethics, published posthumously in Latin and Dutch. Mo 50 – Statue Spinoza – Amsterdam" (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 22 January 2022 . Retrieved 20 June 2023. How to Study Spinoza's Tractus Theologico-Politicus;" reprinted in Strauss, Jewish Philosophy and the Crisis of Modernity, ed. Kenneth Hart Green (Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1997), 181–233. The attraction of Spinoza's philosophy to late 18th-century Europeans was that it provided an alternative to materialism, atheism, and deism. Three of Spinoza's ideas strongly appealed to them: Spinoza published little in his lifetime and most of his formal writings were in Latin, which would have reached only a small number of readers. His supporters published his works posthumously, in Latin and in Dutch, with other translations to European languages following. A descriptive bibliography has been published that contextualizes all aspects of the publication history of Spinoza's writings from manuscript to print. [90]

Spinoza argues through propositions. He holds the perspective that the conclusion he presents is merely the necessary logical result of combining the provided Definitions and Axioms. He starts with the proposition that "there cannot exist in the universe two or more substances having the same nature or attribute." [5] He follows this by arguing that objects and events must not merely be caused if they occur, but be prevented if they do not. By a logical contradiction, if something is non-contradictory, there is no reason that it should not exist. Spinoza builds from these starting ideas. If substance exists it must be infinite, [6] because if not infinite another finite substance would have to exist to take up the remaining parts of its finite attributes, something which is impossible according to an earlier proposition. Spinoza then uses the Ontological Argument as justification for the existence of God and argues that God (which should be read as "nature", rather than traditional deity) must possess all attributes infinitely. Since no two things can share attributes, "besides God no substance can be granted or conceived." [7] Touber, Jetze (21 June 2018). Spinoza and Biblical Philology in the Dutch Republic, 1660–1710. Oxford University Press. p.45. ISBN 978-0-19-252718-9. Della Rocca, Michael. 1996. Representation and the Mind-Body Problem in Spinoza. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-509562-3 Melamed, Yitzhak Y., Spinoza's Metaphysics: Substance and Thought (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013). xxii+232 pp.

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Ethics, Pt. I, Prop. XXXVI, Appendix: "[M]en think themselves free inasmuch as they are conscious of their volitions and desires, and never even dream, in their ignorance, of the causes which have disposed of them so to wish and desire." Expulsion from the Jewish community [ edit ] Spinoza and the Rabbis by Samuel Hirszenberg (1907) Spinoza's name crossed out on the list of pupils of Ets Haim Seal with Spinoza's initials and the Latin word meaning "caution"

According to German philosopher Karl Jaspers (1883–1969), when Spinoza wrote Deus sive Natura (Latin for 'God or Nature'), Spinoza meant God was natura naturans (nature doing what nature does; literally, 'nature naturing'), not natura naturata (nature already created; literally, 'nature natured'). Jaspers believed that Spinoza, in his philosophical system, did not mean to say that God and Nature are interchangeable terms, but rather that God's transcendence was attested by his infinitely many attributes, and that two attributes known by humans, namely Thought and Extension, signified God's immanence. [140] Even God under the attributes of thought and extension cannot be identified strictly with our world. That world is of course "divisible"; it has parts. But Spinoza said, "no attribute of a substance can be truly conceived from which it follows that the substance can be divided", meaning that one cannot conceive an attribute in a way that leads to division of substance. He also said, "a substance which is absolutely infinite is indivisible" (Ethics, Part I, Propositions 12 and 13). [141] Following this logic, our world should be considered as a mode under two attributes of thought and extension. Therefore, according to Jaspers, the pantheist formula "One and All" would apply to Spinoza only if the "One" preserves its transcendence and the "All" were not interpreted as the totality of finite things. [140] See G. Licata, "Spinoza e la cognitio universalis dell'ebraico. Demistificazione e speculazione grammaticale nel Compendio di grammatica ebraica", Giornale di Metafisica, 3 (2009), pp. 625–61. Nadler, Steven M. (2001). Spinoza's Heresy: Immortality and the Jewish Mind. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-926887-0. Nadler, Steven (2022), "Baruch Spinoza", in Zalta, Edward N. (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2022ed.), Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University , retrieved 20 November 2022 Therefore, Spinoza affirms that the passions of hatred, anger, envy, and so on, considered in themselves, "follow from this same necessity and efficacy of nature; they answer to certain definite causes, through which they are understood, and possess certain properties as worthy of being known as the properties of anything else". Humans are not different in kind from the rest of the natural world; they are part of it. [17]Steven Nadler suggests that settling the question of Spinoza's atheism or pantheism depends on an analysis of attitudes. If pantheism is associated with religiosity, then Spinoza is not a pantheist, since Spinoza believes that the proper stance to take towards God is not one of reverence or religious awe, but instead one of objective study and reason, since taking the religious stance would leave one open to the possibility of error and superstition. [143] In modern and contemporary philosophy [ edit ] a b Konstan, David (2016). Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University . Retrieved 21 February 2017– via Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Van den Ven, Jeroen. Printing Spinoza: A Descriptive Bibliography of the Works Published in the Seventeenth Century. Leiden 2022. Nadler, Steven (1 December 2008) [2001]. "Baruch Spinoza". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (substantive reviseded.).

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sourcesin this section. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Spinoza on God, Affects, and the Nature of Sorrow – Florida Philosophical Review". . Retrieved 29 October 2022. Spinoza was raised in the Portuguese-Jewish community of Amsterdam, where his father Michael was a leading figure. His schooling at the yeshiva was curtailed, and he joined his father's importing business. Spinoza developed highly controversial ideas regarding the authenticity of the Hebrew Bible, the nature of the Divine, and questioned rabbinic authority, but kept his views to himself until 1655, after his father's 1654 death. [28] [29] The break with rabbinic authorities coincided with the collapse of the family business. When he openly defied rabbinic authorities in 1655-56, they issued a herem ( חרם‎) against him, expelling him permanently from the congregation; he was shunned by Jewish society at age 23, including by his own family. After his expulsion, Spinoza lived an outwardly simple life as an optical lens grinder. But the center of his life was philosophy, and he had a dedicated clandestine circle of supporters, a philosophical sect, who met in person to discuss the writings he shared with them. [30] The secrecy was necessary because his ideas were so explosive, with his 1670 anonymously published Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (TTP) denounced as "A book forged in hell". [31] He died at the age of 44 in 1677. His unpublished manuscripts were swiftly removed from his lodgings, to prevent their destruction by authorities; his circle of supporters prepared his works with speed and secrecy for posthumous publication in both their original Latin and Dutch. In June 1678, just over a year after Spinoza's death, the States of Holland, pressed by the Dutch Reformed Church, banned his entire works, since they "contain very many profane, blasphemous and atheistic propositions." The prohibition was sweeping, and included the owning, reading, distribution, copying, and restating of Spinoza's books, and even the reworking of his fundamental ideas. [32] Shortly after (1679/1690) his books were added to the Catholic Church's Index of Forbidden Books. [33]Physical modes that are biological have a feature beyond simple extension, namely, conatus (Latin: “exertion” or “effort”), a desire and drive for self-preservation. Unconsciously, biological modes are also driven by emotions of fear and pleasure to act in certain ways. Human beings, as biological modes, are in a state of bondage as long as they act solely from emotions. In Part V of the Ethics, “Of Human Freedom,” Spinoza explains that freedom is achieved by understanding the power of the emotions over human actions, by rationally accepting things and events over which one has no control, and by increasing one’s knowledge and cultivating one’s intellect. The highest form of knowledge consists of an intellectual intuition of things in their existence as modes and attributes of eternal substance, or God; this is what it means to see the world from the aspect of eternity. This kind of knowledge leads to a deeper understanding of God, who is all things, and ultimately to an intellectual love of God ( amor Dei intellectualis), a form of blessedness amounting to a kind of rational-mystical experience. Last years and posthumous influence The Coherence Theory of Truth (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". Archived from the original on 1 November 2019 . Retrieved 1 November 2019. a b c d e f Gottlieb, Anthony (18 July 1999). "God Exists, Philosophically (review of Spinoza: A Life by Steven Nadler)". Books. The New York Times . Retrieved 7 September 2009.

David, Marian (28 May 2015). Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Correspondence theory of truth – The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University . Retrieved 14 May 2019– via Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. a b Lisa Montanarelli (book reviewer) (8 January 2006). "Spinoza stymies 'God's attorney' – Stewart argues the secular world was at stake in Leibniz face off". San Francisco Chronicle . Retrieved 8 September 2009.

Bennett, Jonathan (July 1984). A Study of Spinoza's 'Ethics' . CUP Archive. ISBN 978-0-521-27742-6. On 27 July 1656, the Talmud Torah congregation of Amsterdam issued a writ of herem (Hebrew: חרם‎, a kind of ban, shunning, ostracism, expulsion, or excommunication) against the 23-year-old Spinoza. [44] [50] [51] The Talmud Torah congregation issued censures routinely, on matters great and small, so such an edict was not unusual. [52] The language of Spinoza's censure is unusually harsh, however, and does not appear in any other censure known to have been issued by the Portuguese Jewish community in Amsterdam. [53] The exact reason for expelling Spinoza is not stated. [54] The censure refers only to the "abominable heresies [ horrendas heregias] that he practised and taught", to his "monstrous deeds", and to the testimony of witnesses "in the presence of the said Espinoza". There is no record of such testimony, but there appear to have been several likely reasons for the issuance of the censure. [55] Spinoza also corresponded with Peter Serrarius, a radical Protestant and millenarian merchant. Serrarius was a patron to Spinoza after Spinoza was expelled from the Jewish community. He acted as an intermediary for Spinoza's correspondence, sending and receiving letters of the philosopher to and from third parties. Spinoza and Serrarius maintained their relationship until Serrarius' death in 1669. [74] By the beginning of the 1660s, Spinoza's name became more widely known. The Secretary of the British Royal Society Henry Oldenburg paid him visits and became a correspondent with Spinoza for the rest of his life. [75] In 1676, Leibniz came to the Hague to discuss the unpublished Ethics, Spinoza's principal philosophical work, parts of which apparently circulates in manuscript form. [76] Lens-grinding and optics [ edit ] Few letters are extant for such an important intellectual figure and none before 1661. Spinoza engaged in correspondence from December 1664 to June 1665 with Willem van Blijenbergh, an amateur Calvinist theologian, who questioned Spinoza on the definition of evil. Later in 1665, Spinoza notified Oldenburg that he had started to work on a new book, the Theologico-Political Treatise, published in 1670. Leibniz disagreed harshly with Spinoza in his own manuscript "Refutation of Spinoza", [94] but he is also known to have met with Spinoza on at least one occasion [75] [95] (as mentioned above), and his own work bears some striking resemblances to specific important parts of Spinoza's philosophy (see: Monadology). Popkin, Richard H., "Benedict de Spinoza" in The Columbia History of Western Philosophy (Columbia University Press, 1999), p. 381.

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